Quick Answer: During Which Period Of Pregnancy Do Teratogens Act In An “all-or-nothing” Fashion?

During which period of pregnancy do teratogens act in all or nothing fashion?

Certain drugs taken early in pregnancy (15-21 days after fertilization) during the period of blastogenesis may act in an all or nothing fashion; killing the foetus or not affecting it at all. During this early stage the fetus is highly resistant to birth defects.

Which drug is teratogen that may cause masculinization of a female fetus?

Medroxyprogesterone Pregnancy Warnings Studies in animals have shown that progestogens, including this drug, may have an adverse effect on the developing fetus, including teratogenicity and fetotoxicity. Other animal studies have shown that high doses of progestogens can cause masculinization of the female fetus.

What is the first line drug used to manage intrauterine fetal death?

The RCOG guideline on the management of late IUFD and stillbirth recommends that a combination of mifepristone and a prostaglandin preparation should usually be recommended as the first-line intervention for induction of labour.

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Which medication is contraindicated during pregnancy but can be safely used by lactating mothers?

Drugs contraindicated during breastfeeding include anticancer drugs, lithium, oral retinoids, iodine, amiodarone and gold salts. An understanding of the principles underlying the transfer into breast milk is important, as is an awareness of the potential adverse effects on the infant.

What are 4 teratogens?

Teratogens are classified into four types: physical agents, metabolic conditions, infection, and finally, drugs and chemicals. The word teratogen originates from the Greek word for monster, teratos.

What are 2 common teratogens?

A teratogen is a substance that may lead to birth defects in an embryo or fetus. During pregnancy, exposure to certain chemicals, infections, and drugs may increase the risk that a person will miscarry or that the embryo or fetus could have a developmental abnormality. Alcohol and smoking are two common teratogens.

What happens if you are pregnant and take medroxyprogesterone?

There may be an increased risk of minor birth defects in children whose mothers take this drug during the first 4 months of pregnancy. If you take medroxyprogesterone and later find out you were pregnant when you took it, be sure to discuss this with your doctor as soon as possible.

What meds can a 30 week pregnant woman prescribe?

Conclusion: Dexamethasone accelerates maturation of fetal lungs, decrease number of neonates with respiratory distress syndrome and improves survival in preterm delivered neonates. Optimal gestational age for use of dexamethasone therapy is 31 to 34 weeks of gestation.

Which is the most common type of drug interaction?

pharmacokinetic – defined as an alteration in the absorption, distribution, metabolism or excretion of one drug by another. This is the most common type of drug interaction. pharmacodynamic – where the drug affects the action or effect of the other drug.

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What are the symptoms of baby dies in womb?

The most common symptom of stillbirth is when you stop feeling your baby moving and kicking. Others include cramps, pain or bleeding from the vagina. Call your health care provider right away or go to the emergency room if you have any of these conditions.

What are the signs of fetal death?


  • absent fetal heartbeat.
  • absent fetal movements.
  • occasional findings. overlapping of skull bones (Spalding sign) gross distortion of fetal anatomy (maceration) soft tissue edema: skin >5 mm.
  • uncommon findings. thrombus in fetal heart. gas shadow in fetal heart (Robert sign)​

How do they remove a dead baby from the womb?

This treatment involves a surgical procedure known as a dilatation and curettage (D&C) which is done under a general anaesthetic. The procedure will remove any pregnancy tissue from your uterus. It is successful in 95 to 100 per cent of cases but there are small surgical risks.

Which antibiotic is safe for lactating mother?

The use of most antibiotics is considered compatible with breast feeding. Penicillins, aminopenicillins, clavulanic acid, cephalosporins, macrolides and metronidazole at dosages at the low end of the recommended dosage range are considered appropriate for use for lactating women.

What medications to avoid during breastfeeding?

Breastfeeding women should avoid aspirin and products containing aspirin (this includes Pepto Bismal taken for an upset stomach), as well as products containing naproxen (Aleve). In contrast, acetominophen (Tylenol) and ibuprofin (Motrin, Advil) are not known to have any negative effects on nursing babies.

What can pass through breast milk?

Three viruses (CMV, HIV, and HTLV-I) frequently cause infection or disease as a result of breast-milk transmission. Reasonable guidelines have been pro-posed for when and how to avoid breast milk in the case of maternal infection.

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